8-UN series - A standard diameter-pitch combination with coarse-pitch threads and 8 threads per inch. This series is commonly used instead of UNC threads for bolt diameters over 1 inch.  

12-UN series A standard diameter-pitch combination with medium-pitch threads and 12 threads per inch. This series is commonly used instead of UNF threads for bolt diameters over 1 1/2 inch.

16-UN series A standard diameter-pitch combination with coarse-pitch threads and 8 threads per inch. This series is commonly used instead of UNC threads for bolt diameters over 1 inch. 

adhesive bonding The joining of two or more materials through the use of adhesives such as liquids, drops, or gels. 

allowance -  A specific amount of clearance or interference between threads.

Angle Nutrunner Tool Configuration - Angle nutrunners are well suited for many assembly applications. The minimal dimensions of our angle heads allow them to reach into restricted places, while their longer effective length reduces the torque reaction forces on the handle. For higher torque applications, these tools can be fitted with torque reaction devices. STANLEY offers a broad line of air and electric angle nutrunners with a variety of control methods.

Anvil - The part of an installation tool nose assembly used to swage the collar of a lockbolt fastener. Commonly known as a swaging anvil.

asymmetrical -  Having sides that are different. A buttress thread has asymmetrical sides. 

Bearing Surface - The head or tail of the fastener which is in contact with the outer surface of the joint material.

Blind Fastener - A fastener that can be installed with access to only one side of the work piece. Please view fastener placing animation.

Blind Hole - A hole which can only be accessed from one end.

Blind Side - The side of the joint which cannot be accessed. E.g. the inside surface of a tubular or box section.

blind threaded hole -  A type of hole that does not go completely through the material. Most screws are assembled into blind threaded holes. 

Body - The portion of a breakstem fastener that expands into the parent material.

Body Length - See 'Shank Length.'

bolt - A cylindrically shaped, threaded device used for fastening parts. Bolts usually have blunt ends and mate with a nut. 

Breaker Groove - The weakened groove in the stem or pin of a fastener allowing it to break at a pre-determined load.

Breakstem Fastener - A fastener which is installed by gripping and pulling the end of the mandrel/stem. As installation is completed, the end of the stem fractures at the breaker groove and is discarded, leaving the head of the stem in the fastener body.

Broach - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) The action of pulling the mandrel though the speed fastener in order to place it. Please view placing animation.

Broach Load - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) The force required to pull the mandrel through the speed fastener in order to place it.

BSW - Whitworth Thread - An imperial thread form standard, no longer in mainstream use. It is covered by British Standard BS 84.

Bulbing - The physical action of the fastener body swelling (bulbing radially) against the rear face of the joint when placed. Generally found in breakstem fasteners, speed fasteners and threaded inserts. Please view fastener placing animation.

buttress thread - A thread with an asymmetrical ridge that has one straight and one angled flank. 

chip - An unwanted piece of metal that is removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal. 

Clamp Load - The compressive load induced in the joint by the installed fastener. The residual clamp load (or joint pre-tension) is the compressive load remaining in the joint after the fastener is installed. Higher clamp loads are experienced during fastener installation (pulling force).

class of fit - A system that designates how loose or tight the thread should be in general. 

clearance -  An amount of space or distance between two objects. 

Clench - The ability of a fastener to draw together and hold together initially separated joint material components, during the installation process. i.e. "Gap closing" ability.

Clutch Actuated Shut Off Control Method - Clutch actuated shut off tools use a fast acting torque sensing clutch to disengage the motor from the drive spindle at a preset torque level. The system also shuts off the power to the motor. This fast shut off reduces the effect of operator technique on the applied torque value and the torque reaction impulse felt by the operator. Clutch actuated shut off tools reduce torque variability as  compared to standard pneumatic tools. The low torque reaction impulse makes clutch actuated shut off tools ideal for hand held applications. Torque is adjusted at the tool and is not affected by variations in the  supply air pressure.  STANLEY’s exclusive rolling element clutch eliminates the frictional elements commonly found in competitive tools.  This allows extremely close torque control without the need for repeated torque adjustment with clutch wear. 

cold forming - The shaping of a metal at room temperature.

Collar Cropper/Splitter - An installation tool attachment that removes collars from lockbolt fasteners.

Complete Hole Fill - Fasteners with this capability expand to fill irregular, slotted, oversize or misaligned holes.

Control Methods - The control method should match the joint specifications and the quality assurance required. For the most critical applications, microprocessor based controllers can perform 100% inspection of the dynamic applied torque and collect statistical process control data. Such methods can eliminate the need for secondary inspection processes. When control requirements are less demanding STANLEY also offers more economical ways to control torque to the required specifications.

crest -  The top where two flanks meet on a thread. 

Crowfoot Nutrunner Tool Configuation - Crowfoot nutrunners use special tool geometries to access hard to reach applications where more conventional tools won’t fit. Gear driven heads provide high levels of torque control. Special head designs can solve most demanding assembly problems.

cutting tool - A device made of hard, tough material that is used to remove metal by creating chips.

cylinder -  A solid, three-dimensional shape with circular ends and straight sides.

depth - The length of the space measured from the base of the root to an imaginary line spanning the crests of a thread.

diameter - The distance between certain points on a thread. 

double-start thread - Having two ridges wrapped around the cylinder. 

Drive Screw - The male threaded part in the nose of a threaded insert installation tool, which engages the female thread of inserts.

driver adaptor - A torque sensor that connects to a computer interface. A driver adaptor is a device that expands the range of the tool. 

Electronic Monitoring Control Method - Tools without electronic shut off capability may be monitored by monitoring the dynamically applied torque process. A microprocessor based monitor observes the compressed air signature for each fastener for 100% inspection. Similar to electronic shut off tools, electronically monitored tools typically include indicator lights to alert the operator to Pass/ Fail status.

Electric Power Source -  STANLEY brushless DC electric motors offer the highest level of control, working cleaner, quieter and more efficient than pneumatic tools. STANLEY brushless DC electric motors use rare earth magnets and resolver based commutation for high efficiency and reliability. Microprocessor control adjusts torque, speed, and acceleration independently in either forward or reverse directions. DC electric control offers useful fastening strategies that incorporate patented speed control algorithms that sense the torque rate of the joint and, when necessary, automatically reduce the motor speed to minimize torque overshoot. DC electric tools require the least amount of maintenance of any type of power tool which reduces the total cost over the life of the tool. 

Electronically Controlled Shut Off Control Method - Available for both electric and pneumatic tools, electronic control uses a torque transducer in the tool connected to a microprocessor based controller. The controller monitors the dynamic fastening torque and shuts off the tool when the torque reaches the preset value. This closed loop control method precisely controls dynamic torque.

external thread - A type of thread formed on the outside of a cylinder, such as on bolts and screws. 

fastener - A device that holds two or more objects together. A fastener is a bolt or a screw, or even a button or a zipper. 

Fastener Body - The section of the fastener, excluding the head, which is generally the functioning/expanding part in contact with the joint.

fatigue life -  The length of time a thread lasts before breaking down or failing.

fatigue resistant - Opposition to breaking down or failing from use. 

Fatigue Strength - The ability of a fastener to resist fracture when subjected to cyclic variations in stress.

female thread - Another name for internal thread. 

Fillet Radius - The concave junction at two intersecting surfaces of a fastener.

Fit - The range of tightness within a joint, which can occur due to the combination of fastener and parent material tolerances.

Fixtured Tool Geometry -  Fixtured nutrunners typically mount to semi automatic equipment for manipulation during single or multi-tool assembly operations. Multiple spindle fixtured tools allow the simultaneous assembly of multiple fasteners. Output configurations are Right Angle, Inline, and Offset. Offset spindle heads allow for simultaneous fastening on closer center distance. All these configurations are available with retractable spindle outputs. Nutrunners with reaction bars can mount on articulating arms or torque reaction balancers. These devices absorb torque reaction forces and help the operator to position the tool. Many hand held tools use mounting hardware for fixtured applications. Other assembly motors have mounting flanges for fixturing.

Flange - A disc shaped rim formed on the end of a cylindrical object, often related to the head geometry of a fastener.

Flanged Collar - A type of lockbolt collar with a flange, which provides an increased bearing surface.

flank - An angled side of the body of a thread that connects the root to the crest. 

Full Collar - A standard full height lockbolt collar.

Gap Closing - See 'Clench.'

Gear Case Extensions for Angle Tools - Gear Case Extensions fit between the gearing and an angle output to extend the reach of the tool.

Grip - The total thickness of a closed joint.

Grip Range - The difference between the minimum and maximum grip at which a fastener will operate.

Half Collar - A reduced height lockbolt collar used for minimal collar protrusion. Note: will reduce tensile performance.

Handheld Tool Geometry - Applications which require an operator to maneuver the tool to the fastener and manipulate it throughout the assembly process require hand held tools. Hand held tools are available configured as any of the tools listed in the configuration section that follows. The proper selection of these tools involves a thorough understanding of the required task and a working knowledge of the resulting torque reaction and the human factors involved in the performance of the task. Every effort has been taken in the design of these tools to make them as user friendly as possible considering the work they must perform. The most critical step is in the selection process as operator safety should always be given the highest priority.

head - The top of a fastener. Different types of fasteners have differently shaped heads. 

Headform - The style characteristics of the fastener head. Eg. low profile, large flange, countersunk.

helical - Winding around in a spiral, spring, or coil. 

helix - A spiral structure that contains a repeating pattern.

Hold and Drive Tool Configuration - Hold and drive tools simultaneously hold the bolt while the nut is tightened. A formed end on the bolt interfaces with a mating tang or bit, to prevent bolt rotation while the associated nut is tightened.

Hole Fill - The ability of a fastener to fill the clearance hole in which it is installed. It is achieved by radial expansion of the fastener body during the installation process.

Host Material - See 'Joint Material.'

Hydro-Pneumatic - Refers to installation tools. The use of an air over oil intensification system to generate the necessary forces required for fastener installation.

included angle - The angle created by two adjacent flanks. 

Inline Tool Configuration -  Straight tools are suitable for screw driving applications where the applied torque is relatively low. They are also useful in higher torque applications when the tool is fixtured to absorb the torque reaction or equipped with a torque reaction bar. The reaction bar is placed against a solid support to absorb the torque reaction impulse.

inside diameter - The interior surface of a spherical or cylindrical object. 

Installation Tool - The tooling used to install a fastener. Can be hand operated or powered.

interference fit - An amount of overlap between two objects. 

internal thread - A type of thread formed in holes, such as in nuts. 

International Organization for Standardization - An organization based in Switzerland that develops and publishes standards for its international membership base. It is often referred to as ISO. 

ISO metric thread - A standard thread form based on millimeters that was developed for use in Europe. 

Joint Material - The application material which is being fastened together. Also referred to as the parent material.

lead -  The distance that a screw travels in one revolution

Lead-in Chamfer - The tapered end of a fastener which aids insertion into the hole.

left-hand thread - A type of thread that is screwed in by rotating it counterclockwise. Left-hand threads are rare. 

Lockbolt Fastener - A two piece fastener comprising of a pin and collar, e.g. Avdelok® or Maxlok®. Access is required to both sides of the joint and installation is achieved by swaging the collar onto the locking grooves of the pin.

Locking Grooves - A set of grooves on the pin of a lockbolt fastener, into which the collar is swaged.

Magazine-Fed - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) Refers to a number of speed fasteners, which may be handled and loaded into an installation tool as a single item.

major diameter - The distance between the crests of a thread. Major diameter is the widest diameter on a thread.

male thread - Another name for external thread. 

Mandrel - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) A specially processed steel rod onto which the magazine of speed fasteners is loaded. The stem of a breakstem fastener can also be referred to as a mandrel.

Maximum Grip - The largest recommended thickness of joint material for a fastener.

Maximum Torque - The maximum recommended torque to be applied to the bolt, which will not cause thread distortion or failure in the threaded insert.

Mechanically Locked Stem - The stem or mandrel is locked in the fastener shell during placement via a mechanical system. This eliminates the risk of the stem vibrating loose from the fastener head and the problems associated with loose stems e.g. Monobolt®. Please view fastener placing animation.

metric designation - The letter "M" that is at the beginning of all metric thread designations. 

metric thread standard - A thread made to a scale that is based on millimeters. 

Minimum Grip - The smallest recommended thickness of joint material for a fastener.

minor diameter - The distance between the roots of a thread. Minor diameter is the smallest diameter on a thread. 

nominal diameter - The overall diameter of the part. Nominal diameter is one of the parts of a metric thread specification. 

nominal size - The size by which something is known, which may be different from its actual, measurable size. A wooden 2 x 4 is actually 1 3/4 x 3 3/4 inches. 

non-threaded fastener - A type of fastener that does not contain threads. 

Nose Assembly/Nose Equipment - A kit of parts fitted to an installation tool. The nose assembly must be matched to a specific fastener as it influences its installation and performance.

Nose Tip - The interchangeable front most part of a nose assembly. The nose tip must be matched to a specific fastener as it influences its installation and performance.

nut - A block, usually of metal, with a threaded hole that mates with a bolt. The outer shape of a nut is often six-sided.

outer diameter - The exterior surface of a spherical or cylindrical object. 

Parent Material - See 'Joint Material.'

Passivation/Passivated - A process which enhances the appearance and corrosion resistance of certain plated finishes on fasteners.

Peel-type Tail - A rivet body which is designed to split open on the blind side of the joint during the installation process to provide a large blind side bearing area in soft materials e.g. T-Lok®. Please view fastener placing animation.

Pistol Grip Tool Configuration - Pistol grip tools are commonly used for hand held, low torque screw driving applications as well as higher torque fixtured or hand held applications where a reaction device can be used to absorb the torque reaction forces. Care should be taken to assure that the operator’s wrist is not strained during the use of these tools.  Special tools can go up to 1200 Nm.

pitch - The distance from one thread groove to the next measured from crest to crest.

pitch diameter - The measured distance between the pitch points taken in the groove between the threads. Pitch diameter is one of the most important dimensions in thread inspection. 

pitch point - The position on the thread where an equal amount of distance exists between the flanks on the solid part of the thread and in the space between the threads.

Pneumatic Power Source - Pneumatic tools use the compressed air systems available in most assembly plants. They offer excellent power to weight ratios and are usually the most economical choice for many fastening applications. STANLEY’s pneumatic motors have a low inertia, locked rotor design that uses low friction materials which provides for a more efficient design with higher speeds. Pneumatic motors are easily maintained to give many years of reliable performance.

Pod - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) A magazine of speed fasteners contained within a strip of bonded paper tape.

Pull Grooves - A set of grooves on a fastener stem to enhance the grip of the tool when pulling.

Pull-Out - The minimum force required to cause the insert to pull through and out of the parent material.

Pulling Force - The axial force the tool applies during the installation of fasteners.

Push-Out - The minimum force required to cause the insert to push through and out of the parent material. 

rail feeder - A screw feeding machine. 

Repetition Riveting - Refers to the Avdel® Speed Fastening System.

Residual Clamp Load - See 'Clamp Load.'

right-hand thread - A type of thread that is screwed in by rotating it clockwise. Most fasteners have right-hand threads. 

root - The base where two flanks meet on a thread. 

screw - A threaded device used for fastening parts or transferring motion. Screws usually have pointed ends. 

Shank Length - A dimensioned length from the fastener head to the tail.

Shear Load - The load applied to a fastener along the joint interface.

Sheet Take-up - See 'Clench.'

single-start thread - Having one ridge wrapped around the cylinder. 

Speed Fastener - A tubular fastener which is specifically configured as part of the Avdel® speed fastening system. The fasteners are supplied as multiples in a disposable magazine, or loose for Avdel® continuous feed systems.

Speed Fastening System - (with reference to Avdel® Speed Fastening System) A speed fastening installation tool into which a magazine of fasteners is loaded. This system facilitates very rapid installation rates.

Splines - Raised ridges around the fastener body to facilitate continuity between the fastener and joint material.

square thread - A thread with box-like ridges. The crests are at 90° angles from the flanks.

start - The number of individual threads on a device. 

Stem - The component part of a breakstem fastener that is retained within the body. Also known as the mandrel.

Stem Retention - The force required to separate the stem from the body of an uninstalled breakstem fastener.

stress area - The area of a thread that is subjected to a tensile force. 

Swaging - The action of permanently radially deforming the collar of a lockbolt onto the pin.

Swivel Tool Bail - Swivel Bails allows for a balancer to hold the weight of the tool while the operator uses the tool in the correct position as the tool is free to rotate inside the bail.

symmetrical - Having similarity in size, shape, and position. A V-shaped thread has symmetrical flanks.

Tensile Load - The load applied to a fastener along its length.

tensile stress area - The amount of force applied on the stress area of a thread. Fine threads have a greater tensile stress area than coarse threads.

thread - A raised, helical ridge around the interior or exterior of a cylindrically shaped object. Threads are found on screws, nuts, and bolts. 

thread cutting - A method of producing screw threads that generally uses a single-point tool to cut a blank or workpiece as it rotates on a lathe. 

thread form - The shape or profile of a thread. Thread forms include V or square threads. 

thread rolling - A cold-forming process that uses hard dies to press threads into a solid blank or workpiece. 

thread series - A thread designation that identifies the coarseness or fineness of threads. 

threaded fastener - A type of fastener that contains threads. Bolts, screws, and nuts are examples of threaded fasteners. 

Threaded Insert - An insert for installation into sheet material where a receptacle for a male threaded component is required. Please view installation animation of blind threaded inserts.

thread-rolling die - A component that shapes metal using extreme pressure into grooved rollers to form threads.

threads per inch - The decimal equivalent of the number of threads in an inch.

Through Hardened - A process to increase uniform material hardness.

TIR Approved - A standard used by the Vehicle Inspectorate - Executive Agency. It is an approved bonding scheme enabling goods vehicles to travel between countries approved by their respective Customs Authorities. The bonding scheme ensures that all load compartments, once sealed (using TIR approved fasteners), cannot have anything added or taken from them without breaking seals or leaving obvious traces of structural damage.

tolerance class - A number and letter combination that indicates the degree of fit and whether it is an internal or external thread. 

Tool Speeds - Tool speeds are indicated in revolutions per minute or“rpm” and indicates the free speed or the speed at which the tool runs at no load. Pneumatic tool speeds are rated at a working pressure of 6.3 bar, or 90psi if not stated otherwise and can deviate up to +/- 10% from the stated value. Electric tool speeds are the rated (maximum) speed of the tool. Variable speeds lower than rated are available through the programming interface. 

Torque Level - Once the power source, the control method and the tool configuration have been considered, the torque level must also be considered before selecting the exact tool model. STANLEY offers a wide selection of torque ranges for each specific type of tool listed. The rated torque values shown represent the highest torque level that can be expected from that model. Torque can always be adjusted down, but never above the rated value. A general rule of thumb is that most air tools can be reasonably adjusted to 50% of their rated torque. If the application requires the torque to be adjusted significantly below the rated value, it is often better to choose the next lower rated tool as generally this will provide a faster tool.

Torque-To-Turn - Typically the torque required to rotate the installed fastener in the application material, usually applies to threaded inserts.

Tubenut Nutrunner Tool Configuration - Tubenut nutrunners typically fasten the compression fittings on fluid lines. They can also fasten cable assemblies and tie rod adjustment applications. After tightening the tool returns the socket to the home open position for removal of the tool.

Ultimate Shear Strength - The failure load of the fastener in a shear situation. It may not reflect the strength of the joint material.

Ultimate Tensile Strength - The failure load of the fastener in a tensile situation. It may not reflect the strength of the joint material.

UNC - Unified Coarse Thread - An imperial thread form standard, prefered in the USA. It is covered by British Standard BS 1580.

UNF - Unified Fine Thread - An imperial thread form standard, prefered in the USA. It is covered by British Standard BS 1580.

Unified coarse - A thread designation for thicker threads. 

Unified fine - A thread designation for thinner threads. 

Unified screw thread - A standard thread form based on inches that was developed by the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain. 

V-shaped thread - A type of thread form that has symmetrical flank angles with a 60° included angle. The V-shaped thread is the most common thread form for fasteners. 

welding - A joining process that uses heat, pressure, and/or chemicals to fuse two materials together permanently.

Wire Tool Bail - Wire Bails allow a tool to be hung on a hook for storage until needed.